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 University of MelbourneFaculty of ScienceHUMAN SCIENCES: FROM  CELLS  TO SOCIETIES(SCIE1000 0) 4)SUBJECT OUTLINE2017Semester 2Subject CoordinatorCelia McMichaelcelia.mcmichael@unimelb.edu.auRoom 1.17, 221 Bouverie St Phone: 8344 67041StaffCo-ordinator, Lecturer: Dr Celia McMichael (Geography)Lecturer: Assoc. Prof. Vicki Lawson (Biomedicine/Pathology)Lecturer: Prof. Nick Haslam (Psychology)Lecturer: Prof. Mark Elgar (Biology: Evolution and Behaviour Group)Lecturer: Dr. Nick Golding (Evolutionary Ecology)Subject structureThis is a 12-week subject. Each week, students are expected to attend:•  One 2 hour lecture per week (12 in total)•  One 1-2 hour lecture/seminar per week (12 in total).Lecture/seminar times and venues•  Thursdays: 11am – 1pmVenue: Physics South-L108 (Laby Theatre)•  Fridays: 12:00pm – 2:00pmVenue: Elisabeth Murdoch-G06 (Theatre A)Weekly readings are listed in this subject outline and are available on the LMS. Each week thereare one to two required readings (listed in bold). 2OverviewWhy do we have pandemics?Pandemics refer to diseases that extend across large geographic areas, are spread via transmissionbetween places (by people, enteric organisms, and vectors), have high rates of transmission andminimal population immunity, cause serious symptomatic illness, are (sometimes) new/novel, andare infectious. Pandemics include HIV/AIDS, cholera, influenza, plague, and West Nile disease. Theterm pandemic has also been used to describe non-infectious diseases, such as obesity, thatrepresent a high global burden of disease and are geographically extensive. Pandemic threats are amajor global concern.Determinants of pandemics operate at the micro level (e.g. cells) through to the macro level (e.g.societies, environments). Causes of pandemics include, for example: emergence of pathogens andhuman-to-human transmission; use or misuse of antimicrobials; changes in pathogen-host-environment interactions; and ecological, behavioural, or socioeconomic changes that support theemergence/spread of disease. Understanding, prevention and control of pandemics requires multi-disciplinary work and collaboration.In this subject we consider the insight of different disciplines for understanding and responding topandemics, including evolutionary ecology, biomedicine, psychology and health geography. Casesand examples of pandemics will be drawn from around the world and across time.In the final week of semester, the views of ‘the human’ that are held by the four disciplines will becompared and contrasted, in light of what has been revealed in studying pandemics. This concludingdiscussion will demonstrate the aspects of the human to which each discipline gives priority, and atwhich scales.Subject Objectives:At the completion of this subject, students will have:•  Understanding of the varied manner in which scientific disciplines understand ‘the human’ -at the scales of the cell, body and society – and how this can form a multi-faceted ‘humansciences’ perspective.•  Knowledge of the ways in which four disciplines – Evolutionary Ecology, Biomedicine,Psychology and Geography – contribute to a ‘human sciences’ perspective to pandemics.•  Capacity to define, describe, and explain the concept of pandemics.•  Familiarity with key historical and modern pandemics.Skills:At the completion of the subject students should have developed the following skills:1. critical analysis2. cross-disciplinary thinking3. capacity to apply theory and concepts to practical examples3SUBJECT AT A GLANCEWk. Date “Discipline” Topic1  27 July  Multi.  Why do pandemics occur?28 July  Biomed  Infectious disease case study investigation/activity2  3 Aug  Geog.  Introduction to key global pandemics4 Aug  Biomed.  Determinants of pandemics (“pandemics in a test tube”)3  10 Aug  Evol. ecol  Transmission dynamics11 Aug  Evol. ecol  Transmission dynamics4  17 Aug  Evol. ecol  Resistance and virulence18 Aug  Evol. ecol  Resistance and virulence5  24 Aug  Biomed.  Biomedicine: infectious disease and pandemics25 Aug  Biomed.  Test weeks 3-4; scenario-based learning/biomed focus6  31 Aug  Biomed.  Examples/attributes of pandemics1 Sept  Biomed.  Scenario-based learning/biomed7  7 Sept  Psych.  Pandemics and insights from psychology8 Sept  Psych.  Test weeks 5-6; scenario-based learning/psych focus8  14 Sept  Psych.  Pandemics: evidence & answers from psychology15 Sept  Psych.  Pandemics: evidence & answers from psychology9  21 Sept  Geog.  Pandemics in place and space; insights from geography22 Sept  Geog.  Test weeks 7-8; scenario-based learning/geog focusNON-TEACHING PERIOD10  5 Oct  Geog.  Understanding pandemics through health geography6 Oct  Geog.  Pandemics and place: micro and macro perspectives11  12 Oct  Multi  Understanding pandemics through a multidisciplinary lens13 Oct  Geog.  Test weeks 9-10; discuss assignment12  19 Oct  Multi  Pandemics past and future: human science perspective20 Oct  Geog.  Critical reflection: inter-disciplinary views of infectious disease-  30 Oct  â€“  Major Essay/Assignment due4ASSESSMENT1)  Four in-class multiple choice tests: 40% (4 x 10%).DUE DATE: Tests will be held IN-CLASS on 25 August, 8 September, 22 September, and 13 October.Each test will consist of 20-30 multiple choice questions and will cover the previous two weeks’readings/lectures.PLEASE BRING: your student number, a black pencil, an eraser.2) Major Essay/Assignment: 60%DUE DATE: 30 October 2017, 11:59pmWORD LENGTH: 2,000 words maximum plus referencesREFERENCING: 8+ references are expected.SUBMISSION: Submit your essay using the Turn-it-in Link on LMSMARKING: The marking rubric (provided on LMS) outlines the primary criteria for marking thisassignment. You are expected to utilise perspectives from core disciplines (biomedicine,evolutionary ecology, psychology, geography).TOPIC: Consider the following scenario (note: Agouti virus is not an actual virus)The recent Agouti virus outbreak in East Asia is a population health emergency of internationalconcern. It has already resulted in over 12,000 cases in East Asia. In recent weeks, three cases ofAgouti virus have been identified in South America, and two in Australia. Early symptoms of the virusinclude fatigue, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and muscular aches. More advanced symptomsappear between 4 to 10 days. The virus can cause haemorrhagic fever. There is no specifictreatment for the virus, but early diagnosis and hospitalisation can aid recovery. The disease has anestimated case fatality rate of 20%. Rates of Agouti virus mutation are high: their genomes canaccrue genetic differences while spreading geographically; the virus is able to adapt rapidly to novelenvironments with the potential to alter sensitivity to immune responses.Humans can contact the infection if they are exposed to infected saliva, faeces and urine fromrodents or contaminated dust where infected rodents live; rodents are the primary reservoirsworldwide. Wild rodent hosts are most frequently found in rural or semi-rural areas. The outbreakin East Asia was preceded by an unusually wet conditions caused by a strong La Niña event. The rainsboosted the food supply available to rodents (insects, vegetation) leading to 10-fold increase in theirpopulation.Agouti virus has devastated individuals, families and communities, increased burden on essentialhealth services, and isolated affected populations. Factors that affect exposure to the virus includefarm work, herding, sleeping on the ground and poor housing conditions that increase contactbetween humans and rodents.QUESTION: Examine how each of the four disciplines – evolutionary ecology, biomedicine,psychology, geography – might understand the causes of the “Agouti virus” and contribute toaspects of prevention, treatment and control. Discuss the value of a multi-disciplinary approach tothis pandemic threat.5Week 1 (Multidisciplinary)In this subject – cells to societies – we will be drawing on insights from evolutionary ecology,biomedicine, psychology and geography in order to understand the question ‘why do we havepandemics?’ In this first week, we explore the concept of pandemics, discuss the need formultidisciplinary perspectives and collaboration in understanding and responding to pandemics, andintroduce the idea of human sciences.Reading:Morens, D., Folkers, G.K., Fauci, A. 2009. What is a pandemic? The Journal of Infectious Diseases,200: 1018-21. Available at http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/200/7/1018.fullWeek 2 (Multidisciplinary)We introduce key pandemics – both historic and current – such as the Black Death, Spanish Flu, andHIV/AIDS and zoonotic infections (i.e. a disease that can be spread between animals and humans).We note the significance of clinical, scientific, psychological, socio-cultural and environmental factorsin terms of understanding and responding to (global) infectious diseases.Reading:Armelagos, G.J., Brown, P., Turner, B (2005) Evolutionary, historical and political economicperspectives on health and disease. Social Science and Medicine, 61: 755-765.Week 3 (Evolutionary Ecology; transmission dynamics)This week we will look at pandemics from the perspective of ecological dynamics. The rate of spread ofan infectious disease depends on some key parameters – like how many people are infected by each caseand how quickly cases recover. If we understand the transmission cycle and know these parameters, wecan use population dynamics to anticipate whether an outbreak is likely to lead to a pandemic, and whatwe need to do to stop it.Reading:Heesterbeek, H., Anderson, R. M., Andreasen, V., Bansal, S. et al. (2015). Modeling infectious diseasedynamics in the complex landscape of global health. Science, 347(6227), 4339–4339.Week 4 (Evolutionary Ecology; resistance and virulence)Eminent biologist and theist Theodosius Dobzhansky’s observation that “nothing in biology makessense except in the light of evolution” is especially relevant to understanding the relationshipsbetween humans and pathogens. This week provides an introduction to Darwin’s simple, butfrequently misunderstood, explanation of the evolution of adaptation by natural selection, and anaccount of its remarkable success in explaining the diversity of life. The theory will then be appliedto two adaptations that are of critical interest to studies of disease – antimicrobial resistance andpathogen virulence – and how ideas derived from evolutionary theory might help mitigate thesechallenges.Reading:Dobzhansky, T. 1973. Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. AmericanBiology Teacher 35 (3): 125–129.Stearns, S. 2012. Evolutionary medicine: its scope, interest and potential. Proceedings of the RoyalSociety B 279: 4305–4321.6Week 5 (Biomedicine)This week provides an introduction to biomedical understanding of infectious disease. Diseaseoccurs when structure (anatomy) and function (physiology and biochemistry) are impaired. Theimmune system (immunology) defends our bodies from infection (microbiology) and disease(pathology). Diseases can be prevented, treated or cured (pharmacology).Reading:Kumar et al. (eds) 2013. General Pathology of Infectious Disease. In Robbins Basic Pathology, 9 thedition. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders.Week 6 (Biomedicine)This week considers biomedical perspectives as to the attributes of pandemics. We consider theattributes of the organism and host that contribute to pandemics using examples from historical andcontemporary pandemics.Reading:Maher, B. & Butler, D. 2009. Swine flu: one killer virus, three key questions. Nature, 462: 154-157.Week 7 (Psychology)This week we explore the role of cognition in responses to pandemics. Using HIV/AIDS as a primaryexample, we explore how people perceive risk and the common biases associated with riskperception. We also discuss decision biases such as unrealistic optimism that may lead people tobehave irrationally in the face of disease risks, and how they may impede efforts to controlinfections. The role of cognitive change in efforts to prevent infection and promote positive healthbehaviour change will also be discussed.Reading:Fisher, W. A., Fisher, J. D., & Shuper, P. A. (2014). Social psychology and the fight against AIDS: Aninformation-motivation-behavioral skills model for the prediction and promotion of healthbehavior change. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 105-193. [read only pp. 105-157)Week 8 (Psychology)This week our attention shifts to emotional and social dimensions of reactions to pandemics. Weexplore the role of attitudes and emotions such as fear and disgust in responses to threats ofinfection and examine the stigma attached to infected persons. The concept of the “behaviouralimmune system” will be introduced. Using examples from HIV/AIDS, SARS and Ebola we explore howstigma and disgust may have evolved as a response to pathogens. Special emphasis will be placed inthe fascinating psychology of disgust, which is arguably an emotion that arose as a disease-avoidance mechanism. Finally, social processes involved in infectious disease transmission will beexamined via research on social networks.Reading:Oaten, M., Stevenson, R. J., & Case, T. I. (2009). Disgust as a disease-avoidance mechanism.Psychological Bulletin, 135, 303-321.Schaller, M., & Park, J. H. (2011). The behavioral immune system (and why it matters). CurrentDirections in Psychological Sciences, 20, 99-103.7Week 9 (Geography; global themes)Infectious diseases pose challenges for understanding the web of causation, including theirgeographic, social, economic, and environmental determinants. In this week, we consider healthgeography and large-scale drivers of infectious disease and pandemics: population mobility, human-environment interactions, health-care access, and poverty/inequality.Reading:Mayer, Jonathon (2000) Geography, ecology and emerging infectious diseases. Social Science andMedicine, 50(7-8): 937-952Famer, P (1996) Social Inequalities and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases2(4): 259-269Week 10 (Geography; local perspectives)In this week we consider examples of geographic research on infectious diseases. We focus on the‘local’, and examine the ways in which socio-cultural experiences, localised experiences of healthcare access, stigma, and changes to everyday life shape understanding and responses to infectiousdisease and epidemics/pandemics.Reading:Colin McFarlane, Renu Desai & Steve Graham (2014) Informal Urban Sanitation: Everyday Life,Poverty, and Comparison, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 104(5): 989-1011.Week 11 (Multidisciplinary)In this week, we consider infectious disease epidemics/pandemic threats – with a focus on zoonoticdiseases. We analyse them from a human sciences perspective, asking questions from differentdisciplinary perspectives.Reading:Cascio, A., Bosilkovski, M., Rodriguez-Morales, A.J., Pappas, G. 2011. The socio-ecology of zoonoticinfections. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 17: 336–342David Nabarro, Chadia Wannous (2016) The Links Between Public and Ecosystem Health in Light ofthe Recent Ebola Outbreaks and Pandemic Emergence. EcoHealth. Available at:http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10393-016-1123-y/fulltext.htmlWeek 12 (Multidisciplinary)In this final week we consider infectious disease from a multi-disciplinary/human sciencesperspective. Infectious diseases have caused deadly pandemics such as the Black Death pandemic inthe fourteenth century (bubonic/pneumonic plague), and HIV/AIDS. They are often biologicalexpressions of social inequalities. While some are becoming better controlled, it is highly unlikely wecan eliminate most emerging infectious diseases. Global and local responses will need multi-disciplinary insight in order to curtail the epidemic and pandemic potential of infectious disease.Reading:Morens DM, Fauci AS (2013) Emerging Infectious Diseases: Threats to Human Health and GlobalStability. PLoS Pathog 9(7): e1003467. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003467Jones, K.E., Patel, N., Levy, M.A. Storeygard, A., Balk, D., Gittleman, J.L. & Daszak, P. (2008) Globaltrends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature, 451: 990-993.8Other relevant references:

HUMAN SCIENCES:FROM CELLS TO SOCIETIES SCIE1000 代写Dibble, C., Wardell, S., Carle, K. (2007) ‘Simulating pandemic influenza risks of US cities’, Simulation Conference(Winter), pp 1548 – 1550Bossak, Brian and Welford, Mark (2010) ‘Spatio-temporal attributes of pandemic and epidemic diseases’,Geography Compass, 4(8), 1084-1096Craddock, S. (2000) ‘Disease, social identity and risk: rethinking the geography of AIDS’, Transactions of theInstitute of British Geographers 25(2), 153-168Gould, W., and Woods, R. (2003) ‘Population geography and HIV/AIDS: the challenge of a “wholly exceptional”disease’, Scottish Geographical Journal, 119(3), 265-281Hunter, Mark (2007) ‘The changing political economy of sex in South Africa: the significance of unemploymentand inequalities to the scale of the AIDS pandemic’, Social Science and Medicine, 64(3), 689-700Johnson, Niall (2006) Britain and the 1918/19 Influenza Pandemic: A Dark Epilogue. London, RoutledgeGostin, L.O., Lucey, D., Phelan, A. (2014) The Ebola Epidemic: A Global Health Emergency. JAMA 312(11): 1095-1096Hay, S., Battle, K.E., Pigott, D.M. et al. (2013) Global mapping of infectious disease. Philos Trans R Soc Lond BBiol Sci. 368(1614): 20120250.Hunter, Mark (2011) ‘Beyond the male migrant: South Africa’s long history of health geography and thecontemporary AIDS pandemic’, Health and Place 16(1), 25-33Linard, C and Tatem, A. (2012) Large-scale spatial population databases in infectious disease research.International Journal of Health Geographics. 11:7 DOI: 10.1186/1476-072X-11-7Morse, Stephen (2007) ‘Pandemic influenza: studying the lessons of history’, PNAS (Proceedings of NationalAcademy of Science), 104(18), 7313-14Pain, Rachel, Smith, Susan (eds) (2008) Fear: Critical Geographies and Everyday Life. Ashgate, Aldershot UK. (ch6 by Ingram is about pandemics)Pybus OG, Tatem AJ, Lemey P (2015) Virus evolution and transmission in an ever more connected world ProcBiol Sci. Dec 22; 282(1821):20142878. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2014.2878.Phillips, H., Killingray, D (2003) eds The Spanish Flu Pandemic of 1918-19: New Perspectives. London,RoutledgeReid, Ann et al. (2004) ‘Evidence of an absence: the genetic origins of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus’,Nature Review Microbiology, 2, 909-914Richard, SA et al. (2009) ‘A comparative study of the 1918-1920 influenza pandemic in Japan, USA and UK:mortality, impact and implications for pandemic planning’, Epidemiology and Infection, 137(8), 1062-72Robson, E. et al. (2006) ‘Young caregivers in the context of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa’,Population, Space and Place 12(2), 93-111Veterinarians without borders (2010) One Health for One World. Available at:http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/publications/OHOW_Compendium_Case_Studies.pdfWallace RG, Kock R, Bergmann L, Gilbert M, Hogerwerf L, Pittiglio C, Mattioli R, Wallace R. (2016) DidNeoliberalizing West African Forests Produce a New Niche for Ebola? Int J Health Serv. 46(1):149-65.Other relevant resourcesCentralized information system for infectious diseases (CISID). http://data.euro.who.int/cisid/Global Health Atlas. http://apps.who.int/globalatlas/World Bank Health Nutrition Population Statistics. http://databank.worldbank.org/data/databases/infectious-diseases9EXTENSIONS FOR MAJOR ESSAYThe topic for assignments and their submission dates are notified at the start of teaching andextensions will not normally be permitted. However, if the need arises – e.g. medical reasons or anyother circumstances outside the control of the student – an application (with documentation) for anextension of up to one week should be made directly to Dr Celia McMichael(celia.mcmichael@unimelb.edu.au) before the due date for that assignment. For SpecialConsideration, if a longer extension is required, please refer to the Student Portal (or seehttp://students.unimelb.edu.au/admin/special).PENALTIES FOR LATE SUBMISSION OF MAJOR ESSAYStandard penalties will apply for late submission for essays/assignments, unless an extension hasbeen granted: the mark awarded for the student’s work will be reduced by 10% for each day thework is late. Essays submitted later than 5 days after the due date will not be marked, thereforereceiving no marks.RULES FOR SUBMISSION OF MAJOR ESSAYThe Major Essay must be submitted via the Turn-It-In link on LMS.SPECIAL CONSIDERATION FOR IN-CLASS TESTSStudents are required to complete all in-class tests. If you are unable to attend a test, you must sendan email directly to Dr Celia McMichael (celia.mcmichael@unimelb.edu.au) before the test. Studentswho are not granted special consideration will be awarded 0% for that test. For students who aregranted special consideration: upon missing one test, will be marked out of 90 (i.e. can stillhypothetically get 100% by getting 90/90); upon missing two or more tests, will be assigned analternative assessment piece worth 10% at the end of semester (week 12) that may comprise a shortessay and/or multiple choice test (and they will be marked out of 90).WRITINGStudents needing assistance with writing should contact the academic skills unit.http://www.services.unimelb.edu.au/asu/.ATTENDANCEIt is expected that you attend lectures and seminars as scheduled throughout semester unless thereare exceptional circumstances. If you miss a lecture/seminar please make a time to listen to thelecture recordings later in the week.CHEATING AND PLAGIARISMIt is University policy that cheating by students in any form is not permitted, and that worksubmitted for assessment purposes must be the independent work of the student concerned (or,where joint work is specifically permitted, the joint work of the students concerned). This is inkeeping with the rules made by University Council under Regulation 12.2.10.R1.See: http://www.services.unimelb.edu.au/plagiarism/plagiarism.html for details.LEAVE OF ABSENCE AND WITHDRAWAL FROM SUBJECTSTo withdraw from a subject or take a leave of absence from a course, a student must complete theappropriate form and return it to the Faculty of Science Student Centre before the census datesdetailed in the next section. Failure to withdraw officially from a subject will result in the studentbeing given a ‘Fail’ grade as well as financial liability for the fees of the subject.


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