Order Grade A+ Academic Papers Instantly!

PHL 320 Final Exam

1

 

The term __________ refers to the inner guiding moral values, beliefs, and principles used by a person to examine a situation and govern his or her behavior.

 

·             

 

 

autonomy

 

·             

 

 

ethics

 

·             

 

 

bias

 

·             

 

 

authority

 

2

 

Identify the unstated conclusion in the following argument: The most hardworking employee in the company will receive the Employee of the Year award. Doug has been working exceptionally hard all year round.

 

·             

 

 

Hardworking employees win the Employee of the Year award.

 

·             

 

 

Doug has not yet received an award from the company.

 

·             

 

 

Doug is the most hardworking employee in the company.

 

·             

 

 

Doug will win the Employee of the Year award.

 

 

 

3

 

Which of the following rules of ethical decision making focuses on providing the greatest good for the greatest number of people?

 

·             

 

 

The moral rights rule

 

·             

 

 

The justice rule

 

·             

 

 

The utilitarian rule

 

·             

 

 

The golden rule

 

question4

 

When would an argument be considered valid?

 

·             

 

 

When the premise of the argument is unquestionably true

 

·             

 

 

When it is impossible for the conclusion to appear after the premise

 

·             

 

 

When it is impossible for the premise to be true and the conclusion to be false

 

·             

 

 

When the argument is sound

 

5

 

Which of the following is the first step in the decision-making process?

 

·             

 

 

Seeking feedback

 

·             

 

 

Generating alternatives for a decision

 

·             

 

 

Assessing alternatives

 

·             

 

 

Realizing the need for a decision

 

6

 

Which of the following terms refers to an approximate assessment of the credibility of a claim?

 

·             

 

 

Background information

 

·             

 

 

Categorical imperative

 

·             

 

 

Initial plausibility

 

·             

 

 

Hypothetical imperative

 

7

 

__________ is a written approach to creative problem solving and decision making.

 

·             

 

 

Groupthink

 

·             

 

 

The Delphi technique

 

·             

 

 

The nominal group technique

 

·             

 

 

Brainstorming

 

8

 

Which of the following takes place in the final stage of the decision-making process?

 

·             

 

 

Examining why any expectations for a decision were not met

 

·             

 

 

Ranking the various alternatives in order of practicality

 

·             

 

 

Giving middle managers sufficient resources to achieve a goal

 

·             

 

 

Making minor decisions related to the chosen alternative

 

9

 

Which of the following is true of a good inductive argument?

 

·             

 

 

The greater the support the premise provides for the conclusion, the weaker is the argument.

 

·             

 

 

The lesser the support the premise provides for the conclusion, the stronger is the argument.

 

·             

 

 

The premise of a good inductive argument demonstrates its conclusion.

 

·             

 

 

The premise of a good inductive argument supports its conclusion.

 

10

 

The management of a small-scale cosmetics company wants to increase awareness of their brand and its products in the market. They decide to choose between two alternatives: either launch a new advertising campaign on social media or offer promotional discounts in select stores. They conduct research on which of these two alternatives would be the most viable for the company. They compare the potential costs and potential benefits of each alternative. In this scenario, which of the following criteria is being evaluated by the management of the company?

 

·             

 

 

Legality

 

·             

 

 

Ethicalness

 

·             

 

 

Economic feasibility

 

·             

 

 

Innovative capacity

 

11

 

A cosmetics company has manufactured a new range of skin care products. The top management wants to create a common tagline for the entire range of products and therefore decides to get the managers of the company involved in the decision-making process. It conducts a number of sessions in which the managers are asked to work together and think of innovative taglines for the products and share their ideas with the rest of the group. Group members are specifically asked to be open to all ideas, however offbeat they may be. The members of the group are then asked to pick a tagline after debating the pros and cons of the most popular ideas. This scenario illustrates __________.

 

·             

 

 

delayering

 

·             

 

 

brainstorming

 

·             

 

 

the Delphi technique

 

·             

 

 

the nominal group technique

 

12

 

A(n) __________ presents a consideration for the acceptance of a claim.

 

·             

 

 

fact

 

·             

 

 

argument

 

·             

 

 

opinion

 

·             

 

 

issue

 

13

 

Which of the following is a question to be asked when one is presented with a claim?

 

·             

 

 

When does the claim become a true statement?

 

·             

 

 

What is likely to happen if the claim is examined in detail?

 

·             

 

 

Does the claim speak about one particular subject?

 

·             

 

 

When does the content of the claim pose a credibility problem?

 

14

 

Identify the conclusion in the following argument: Mark always leaves his phone at home when he goes to the gym. He has not been answering any calls in the past hour, so he is at the gym.

 

·             

 

 

Mark does not answer calls when he is at the gym.

 

·             

 

 

Mark leaves his phone at home when he goes to the gym.

 

·             

 

 

Mark has not been answering calls.

 

·             

 

 

Mark is at the gym.

 

15

 

Which of the following serves as the most reliable source of information about the world in general?

 

·             

 

 

The background information one possesses

 

·             

 

 

One’s personal interests

 

·             

 

 

Things that one learns from others

 

·             

 

 

One’s own observations

 

16

 

Which of the following occurs as a result of group members’ being unable to simultaneously understand all the alternatives that are generated in a brainstorming session?

 

·             

 

 

Groupthink

 

·             

 

 

Production blocking

 

·             

 

 

Delayering

 

·             

 

 

Feedback control

 

17

 

The two factors that are used to assess the credibility of claims are claims themselves and their __________.

 

·             

 

 

premises

 

·             

 

 

soundness

 

·             

 

 

sources

 

·             

 

 

validity

 

18

 

An automobile company decides to do its bit for the environment by introducing new models of electric cars. The company’s long-term goal is to eventually stop manufacturing gasoline cars and focus on manufacturing electric cars. The managers of the company reached this decision after critically evaluating the effects of car fluids and car emissions on the environment. They promise to do everything within their power to reduce the company’s carbon footprint. Which of the following approaches does this scenario illustrate?

 

·             

 

 

The defensive approach

 

·             

 

 

The accommodative approach

 

·             

 

 

The obstructionist approach

 

·             

 

 

The egoistic approach

 

19

 

When a firm exhibits the highest degree of social responsibility, it has most likely adopted __________.

 

·             

 

 

the defensive approach

 

·             

 

 

the proactive approach

 

·             

 

 

the accommodative approach

 

·             

 

 

the obstructionist approach

 

20

 

Identify the unstated premise in the following argument: John is indifferent and has a laid-back approach to work. John should be fired.

 

·             

 

 

Employees who strictly follow their company’s work policy will never be fired.

 

·             

 

 

Anyone who is indifferent and has a laid-back approach to work must be fired.

 

·             

 

 

John is not only indifferent but also has a laid-back approach to work.

 

·             

 

 

John should be fired because he is violating company policy.

 

21

 

Which of the following is the final step in the decision-making process?

 

·             

 

 

Generating alternatives

 

·             

 

 

Implementing the selected alternative

 

·             

 

 

Learning from feedback

 

·             

 

 

Recognizing the need for a decision

 

22

 

__________ refers to a decision maker’s ability to discover unique and original ideas that lead to viable courses of action.

 

·             

 

 

Strategy

 

·             

 

 

Creativity

 

·             

 

 

Problem identification

 

·             

 

 

Problem formulation

 

23

 

Which of the following is a practice that would help foster creativity in an organization?

 

·             

 

 

Rewarding employees who come up with innovative ideas

 

·             

 

 

Holding on to unproductive ideas instead of eliminating them

 

·             

 

 

Withholding feedback, regardless of whether it is constructive or unconstructive

 

·             

 

 

Avoiding the use of contests to encourage employees for fear of promoting unhealthy competition

 

24

 

The top management of a cereal manufacturing company wants to change the packaging of their products and appeal to attract a younger age group. Since the company is located in three cities, the top management wants the managers from each city to weigh in and give their suggestions for improvement. A group leader is first picked, and the problem to be solved is written down. After this, a questionnaire is e-mailed to all the participating managers. The managers are asked to list down solutions to the problem and e-mail the questionnaire back to the group leader. This scenario illustrates the first few steps of __________.

 

·             

 

 

the nominal group technique

 

·             

 

 

brainstorming

 

·             

 

 

production blocking

 

·             

 

 

the Delphi technique

 

25

 

In which of the following approaches to social responsibility do managers often put their own interests first and cause other stakeholders to be harmed yet manage to stay within the law and abide by legal requirements?

 

·             

 

 

The defensive approach

 

·             

 

 

The accommodative approach

 

·             

 

 

The obstructionist approach

 

·             

 

 

The proactive approach

 

26

 

Which of the following practices should be avoided by managers who aim to foster creativity in their organizations?

 

·             

 

 

Allowing employees to make mistakes and learn from them

 

·             

 

 

Attempting to speed up a creative solution to a problem

 

·             

 

 

Giving employees the opportunity to experiment with radical ideas

 

·             

 

 

Encouraging creative employees to take risks

 

27

 

Which of the following statements is an example of an objective claim?

 

·             

 

 

Shakespeare was a better poet than Milton.

 

·             

 

 

The sun sets in the west.

 

·             

 

 

Summers in California are very warm.

 

·             

 

 

A dog is man’s best friend.

 

28

 

__________ are often considered to be the most critical stakeholder group.

 

·             

 

 

Suppliers

 

·             

 

 

Customers

 

·             

 

 

Employees

 

·             

 

 

Managers

 

29

 

Creativity is most likely to result when:

 

·             

 

 

employees are prevented from making mistakes.

 

·             

 

 

managers constantly monitor talented employees.

 

·             

 

 

employees are given the freedom and opportunity to take risks.

 

·             

 

 

managers try to speed up the process of working on a creative solution.

 

30

 

Which of the following statements is an example of a subjective claim?

 

·             

 

 

The earth is round.

 

·             

 

 

Mozart is the greatest musical composer to have lived.

 

·             

 

 

There is life after death.

 

·             

 

 

Aliens exist in other galaxies in the universe.

 

 

 

Solution:

15% off for this assignment.

Our Prices Start at $11.99. As Our First Client, Use Coupon Code GET15 to claim 15% Discount This Month!!

Why US?

100% Confidentiality

Information about customers is confidential and never disclosed to third parties.

Timely Delivery

No missed deadlines – 97% of assignments are completed in time.

Original Writing

We complete all papers from scratch. You can get a plagiarism report.

Money Back

If you are convinced that our writer has not followed your requirements, feel free to ask for a refund.