Order Grade A+ Academic Papers Instantly!

Quiz 2


         In large samples, the sampling distribution of the risk difference is approximately ?









c. t



d. F


0.67 points  


         Plus-four confidence interval method for a difference in proportions is accurate in samples as small as 



         a. 100 per group



         b. 50 per group



         c. 25 per group



         d. 5 per group


0.67 points  


         Which of the following is not a requirement for consideration before continuing with the calculation of a sample size in an observational study observing the difference in incidence of disease X based on exposure?



         a. Projected drop-out rate to inflate the sample size estimate based on the projected loss to follow-up in a study.



         b. A predetermined power for the study to detect a difference when one actually exists.



         c. The correlation coefficient between the two groups being compared.



         d. The informed estimation of the incidence in both groups being compared.


0.67 points  


         Which of the following is not an example of systematic error in an observational study?



         a. A cross-sectional study recruits participants that are willing to sign up outside of a major university and meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria to take part in the survey relating unsafe sex habits to STIs.



         b. A researcher is interested in the relationship between coffee drinking and lung cancer, and after careful multivariate linear regression modeling determines that a significant percentage of the relationship is due to another variable, cigarette smoking.



         c. An observational study recruits participants for a study looking at Alzheimer’s disease due to exposure to industrial hazards by asking participants to recall their exposure over the past 10 years.



         d. A data-entry specialist responsible for adding in fasting glucose levels to a database accidentally skipped an observation during the input phase of data cleaning.


0.67 points  


         Proportions are tested for a significant _____ difference?



         a. “random”



         b. “nonrandom”



         c. “indifferent”



         d. “noisy”


0.67 points  


         What is not a method for testing proportions for significance?



         a. z test (large sample)



         b. Fisher’s exact procedure (small samples)



         c. the chi-square test



         d. the Wassermann test


0.67 points  


         In calculating for tests of proportions for small samples (fewer than 5 successes expected in either group), avoid the z test and use



         a. the exact Fisher or Mid-P procedure



         b. the asymptotic procedure



         c. the random event generator



         d. the special theory of relativity


0.67 points  


         Before conducting Fisher’s test, data are rearranged to form a 



         a. 1-by-2 table



         b. 2-by-1 table



         c. 2-by-2 table



         d. A single row table


0.67 points  


         The best way to calculate a p value for a Fisher’s Exact is to



         a. Use an adding machine



         b. Use computer program



         c. Call a statistician



         d. Use pencil and paper


0.67 points  


         The RR (risk ratio or prevalence ratios) is a risk 



         a. multiplier, e.g., an RR of 2 suggests that the exposure doubles risk



         b. adder, e.g., an RR of 2 suggests that the exposure sums risk



         c. divider, e.g., an RR of 2 suggests that the exposure divides risk



         d. neutralizer, e.g., an RR of 2 suggests that the exposure neutralizes risk


0.67 points  


         When p1 = p2 , RR = 1. 



         a. This is the “multiplier RR,” indicating increased association.



         b. This is the “baseline RR,” indicating no association.



         c. This is the “small effect RR,” indicating slightly increased association.



         d. This is the “population RR,” indicating population prevalent association.


0.67 points  


         An RR of 1.15 indicates 



         a. No association;



         b. a negative association; specifically, 15% lower risk (in relative terms) with exposure.



         c. a positive association; specifically, 15% higher risk (in relative terms) with exposure.



         d. a positive association; specifically, 115% higher risk (in relative terms) with exposure.


0.67 points  


         In observational studies, systematic errors are often _____important than random sampling error?



         a. Less



         b. Equally



         c. More



         d. None of the above


0.67 points  


         The three types of systematic error considered do not include



         a. Confounding



         b. Information bias



         c. Selection bias



         d. Random sampling error


0.67 points  


         Nondifferential misclassification tends to bias results 



         a. Away from the null and show a positive effect.



         b. can bias results in either direction.



         c. toward the null (or have no effect).



         d. Away from the null and show a negative effect.


0.67 points  



15% off for this assignment.

Our Prices Start at $11.99. As Our First Client, Use Coupon Code GET15 to claim 15% Discount This Month!!

Why US?

100% Confidentiality

Information about customers is confidential and never disclosed to third parties.

Timely Delivery

No missed deadlines – 97% of assignments are completed in time.

Original Writing

We complete all papers from scratch. You can get a plagiarism report.

Money Back

If you are convinced that our writer has not followed your requirements, feel free to ask for a refund.