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renewable energy for Net-Zero Energy Buildings

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Multi-criteria Analysis-based Net-Zero Energy Building Design

NCEB Model NZEB Composition. (How NZEB Was Made) Options (What Are The Different Designs Compared ) Criteria Considered Optimal Options Criteria Value Of Optimal Options Major Findings References
1 Net-Zero energy building design Using decision making, planning, and trade-off analysis Comparing food energy and water energy Nexus Resilience Sustainable development Case study The case study explored the food and water energy as different net-zero energy building designs showing their relationship with sustainable development. Asadi and Behnam, 2020
2 Solutions set for net-zero energy design Using feedback from 30 buildings worldwide. Comparing basic Net-zero energy design Multi-criteria comparison Multi-energy system Comparison of performance The study gave solutions to the net-zero energy building design in the system by comparing 30 buildings worldwide. Garde et al., 2017
3 Proceeding of Italian concrete Integrating multiple tools for the design of NZEB system Comparing design of concrete for the zero energy Case study Design alternative to building Design of building in days The approach gave a proceeding for the building done in Italy of concrete using the NZEB technology as a case study. Prisco and Marco, 2018
4 Sustainability of the NZEB system Using modeling and analysis Compare the sustainability of NZEB Modeling Analysis of sustainability Comparison using modeling and analysis The comparison was done using the modeling and analysis for the sustainability of the new era of suing the NZEB in the construction industry. Tsai, 2019
5 Application of management and engineering Using multiple criteria decision making Comparing engineering skills in NZEB Multi-criteria decision Case study Comparison of engineering and management in NZEB The application of management and engineering is a crucial aspect in the decision making for the multiple building design in net-zero energy Zopounidis and Michael, 2016
6 Measures of the energy efficiency Using case study of the UC Davis in solar energy Comparing the solar energy at home with the NZEB Renewable energy criteria Case study Comparison of the solar energy at home The case of UC Davis solar energy at decathlon home as compared to the NZEB building in the renewable energy sector Alemi and Frank (2015)
7 Greenhouse complex Net energy design and energy sharing potential of retail Comparing the NZEB and greenhouse complex Greenhouse energy criteria Design of ZNEB Comparison of the ZNEB with greenhouse The greenhouse complex creates a net-zero energy building that can be applied on the ZNEB Syed and Caroline (2019)



Renewable usage for Net-Zero Energy Building Development

Reference NZEB Design Renewable Sources Critical Parameters Major Findings
1 Alalouch et al., 2019 Energy efficiency and building environment Solar and wind energy Improving the sustainability of the energy in NZEB In developing countries, the use of solar and wind energy in the building industry has been a key factor as it has really impacted the NZEB in these countries.
2 Daim et al., 2019 Emerging technology Conventional renewable energy sources Management in the knowledge error of NZEB The renewable energy of ZNEB proposal enhances the overall performance by 44% when compared with conventional methods by solving the challenges.
3 Aksamija, 2015 Net-zero energy goals in retrofitting commercial buildings Biomass and hydropower The location of the building is essentially responsible for choosing to use hydropower It is possible to rethink the NZEB ideas so that all possible strategies can be introduced into an existing building while comprehensively considering a sustainable design, adaptive reuse, and renewable energy systems.
4 Shapiro, 2016 Net-zero energy in a commercial building solar thermal, PV and PV/T The total efficiency of the source of power and the usage of space Using high-efficiency PV modules in construction helps to achieve an almost zero energy balance depending on the definition of the NZEB, the boundary conditions as well as the building’s energy system design.
5 Flood et al., 2015 Future of renewable energy Solar energy Percentage of energy provision To meet thermal needs in buildings, the use of renewable energy through energy-saving measures like installing good insulation will be efficient.
6 Whitcomb, 2014 Developing zero energy community Geothermal, biomass, and wind Energy performances The building orientation has little influence on the little effect on the energy performance of the systems all around the year, and the NZEB design has the potential of being utilised to all new and old buildings to ensure low carbon production.



Life cycle Assessment of Net-Zero Energy Buildings

Reference NZEB Design (Configuration ) Functional Unit Global Warming Potential Major Influential Factors (%) (How Much Does The Factor Contribute To The GWP) Other Findings
1 Dincer et al., 2014 Sustainable energy technology Building technology The embodied global warming potential rises when the lifecycle energy of the building technology, and this leads to lower operational energy. The building technology energy determines the embodied global warming potential as 6840, which is larger than 20-year. To achieve high energy performance, a building with less embodied energy can be created if it has a high thermal and airtightness in the building technology.
2 “GEA Writing Team,” 2012 Global energy assessment Sustainable future A ZNEB in sustainable future can reduce overall energy-efficiency when not restricted The sustainable future can have an energy-efficiency by up to 30% that is approximately 2380 as compared to ZNEB The Combining heat and power systems can ensure improved urban energy-efficiency even though planning restrictions may occur.
3 Hootman, 2013 Commercial architecture Building using the net-zero energy system The structure of ZNEB system incorporated in the building industry to minimize global warming The net-zero design building reduces more than 80% of global warming to the environment that is estimated as 6938. The use of the net-zero design and building in commercial architecture reduces the environmental hazards in the world as many buildings are commercialized.
4 Chau et al. (2015) A review on life cycle assessment in zero energy design Carbon emission on building Has some potential for global warming as it eliminates carbon from the environment. The carbon emission contributes more than 50% of the GWP estimated as 2340 for emissions The impacts on the environment as a result of the net-zero energy building are  very low when compared with standard structures
5 Karunathilake et al. (2019) Optimal renewable energy supply choices Buildings under uncertainty Compared energy and building based on the optimal renewable energy to produce approximately zero energy building. The optimal renewable energy building contributed to approximately 80 % of 6924 for the ZNEB to the GWP. The consumption of operative energy affects only one-third of the buildings’ environmental impacts under the optimal renewable energy building.
6 Hossaini et al. (2015) Spatial life cycle sustainability assessment. Conceptual framework for the ZNEB Changing the clean energy technology to building industry to create ZNEB The spatial life cycle affects the ZNEB more than 80% of 6876 of the GWP The NZEB depicts a saving energy on the building that are higher than the levels of building energy caused by changes in spatial life sustainability
7 Heine et al. (2019) Using batteries to integrate ZNEB Simulation approach for the sizing battery The sizing batteries are integrated with the net-zero energy in residential building. The residential building contributed to more than 30% of the GWP estimated as 3438. The residential building contribute to global warming potential, their energy efficiency should be labelled to also show the lifecycle perspective and the user’s point of view.
8 Torgal et al., 2013 Nearly zero building refurbishment A multidisciplinary approach The construction of the nearly zero buildings in the industry refreshes the impact of global warming on the environment. This has reduced the impact of global warming on the environment by 28% that is approximate 2785. The nearly zero buildings in the design and construction industry attracts the net-zero energy that is required to furnish the environment and ensure that all buildings are done to standards of the environment.





  1. There are many different Net-Zero Energy Building designs that are employed in different situations to achieve the desired outcome. As such, the Multi-criteria analysis essentially aids in determining the best approach that can provide the optimal design model for a particular occasion. Also, there are different simulation tools and conventional methods that can be used to create NZEB designs. Integrated design approaches are better than conventional separated designs because they improve the performance of NZEBs. Also, the NZEB designs need to be cost-effective.
  2. Different renewable energy sources can be used to facilitate Net-Zero Energy building design models. Critical parameters such as the location of the building, energy efficiency, and performance should be considered when designing the models and when selecting the renewable source of energy and the NZEB model. Building orientation and good installation of insulation facilities also contribute to the efficiency of renewable sources in NZEBs. Solar energy has a high capacity to meet the energy demands in NZE buildings.
  3. NZEB designs that have high thermal and airtightness have low levels of embodied energy that does not affect the environment. Appliances and office equipment contribute to global warming as well as building construction. The building constructions also influence global warming, depending on the type of material used. Besides, the type of material used in constructing these Net-Zero Energy Buildings determines the factors that can influence the global warming potential. Reducing energy consumption in buildings and constructing standard buildings lowers the levels of environmental impact.



Works Cited

Aksamija, Ajla. “Regenerative Design and Adaptive Reuse of Existing Commercial Buildings for Net-Zero Energy Use.” Sustainable Cities and Society, vol. 27, 2016, pp. 185-195.

Alalouch, Chaham, Abdalla, Hassan, Bozonnet, Emmanuel, Elvin, George, and Oscar Carracedo. Advanced Studies in Energy Efficiency and Built Environment for Developing Countries: Proceedings of IEREK Conferences: Improving Sustainability Concept in Developing Countries (CDC-2), Egypt 2017 and Alternative and Renewable Energy Quest in Architecture and Urbanism (AREQ-2), Spain 2017. Springer, 2019.

Alemi, Payman, and Frank Loge. “Energy Efficiency Measures in Affordable Zero Net Energy Housing: A Case Study of the UC Davis 2015 Solar Decathlon Home.” Renewable Energy, vol. 101, 2017, pp. 1242-1255.

Asadi, Somayeh, and Behnam Mohammadi-Ivatloo. Food-Energy-Water Nexus Resilience and Sustainable Development: Decision-Making Methods, Planning, and Trade-Off Analysis. Springer Nature, 2020.

Chau, Chi Kwan, Leung, Tze Ming, NG, Wai Yin. “Corrigendum to “A Review on Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Energy Assessment and Life Cycle Carbon Emissions Assessment on Buildings” [Appl. Energy 143 (2015) 395–413]”. Applied Energy, vol. 158, 2015, p. 656.

Daim, TuÄŸrul, Dabic, Marina, BaÅŸoÄŸlu, Lavoie, João R, and Galli Brian. Nuri, R&D Management in the Knowledge Era: Challenges of Emerging Technologies. Springer, 2019.

Dincer, Ibrahim, Midilli, Adnan, and Haydar Kucuk. Progress in Sustainable Energy Technologies Vol II: Creating Sustainable Development. Springer, 2014.

Flood, Richard, VCAC, Sears, Mitch, and Davis Sustainability Manager. Davis Future Renewable Energy, and Efficiency: Final Project Report. 2015.

Garde, Françios, Ayoub, Josef, Aelenei, Daniel, Aelenei Laura, and Alessandra Scognamiglio. Solution Sets for Net Zero Energy Buildings: Feedback from 30 Buildings Worldwide. John Wiley & Sons, 2017.

GEA Writing Team. Global Energy Assessment: Toward a Sustainable Future. Cambridge UP, 2012.

Heine, Karl, Thatte, Amogh. Tabares-Velasco, Paulo Cesar. “A Simulation Approach to Sizing Batteries for Integration with Net-Zero Energy Residential Buildings”. Renewable Energy, vol. 139, 2019, pp. 176-185.

Hootman, Thomas. Net Zero Energy Design: A Guide for Commercial Architecture. John Wiley & Sons, 2013.

Hossaini, Navid, Hewage, Kasun,  Sadiq Rehan. “Spatial Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment: A Conceptual Framework for Net-Zero Buildings”. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, vol. 17, no. 8, 2015, pp. 2243-2253.

Karunathilake, Hirushie, Hewage, Kasun, Brinkerhoff, Joshua, Rehan, Sadiq. “Optimal Renewable Energy Supply Choices for Net-Zero Ready Buildings: A Life Cycle Thinking Approach Under Uncertainty”. Energy and Buildings, vol. 201, 2019, pp. 70-89.

Prisco, Marco D., and Marco Menegotto. Proceedings of Italian Concrete Days 2016. Springer, 2018.

Shapiro, Ian M. Energy Audits and Improvements for Commercial Buildings. John Wiley & Sons, 2016.

Shen, Limei, and Yongjun Sun. “Performance comparisons of two system sizing approaches for net-zero energy building clusters under uncertainties.” Energy and Buildings, vol. 127, 2016, pp. 10-21.

Syed, Ali Muslim, and Caroline Hachem. “Net-Zero Energy Design and Energy Sharing Potential of Retail – Greenhouse Complex”. Journal of Building Engineering, vol. 24, 2019, p. 100736.

Torgal, Fernando P, Mistretta, Marina, and Asturasl Kaklauskas, editors. Nearly Zero Energy Building Refurbishment: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.

Tsai, Wen-Hsien. Modeling and Analysis of Sustainability Related Issues in the New Era. MDPI, 2019.

Whitcomb, John. A Guide for Developing Zero Energy Communities. Author House, 2014.

Zopounidis, Constantin, and Michael Doumpos. Multiple Criteria Decision Making: Applications in Management and Engineering. Springer, 2016.





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